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Regenerative Medicine

Native tissues are complex biological systems made of a variety of cell types organized into very specific architectures. The 3D arrangement of the cells (and the structures they form) is critical to the proper function of the tissue.

Regenerative medicine uses cells and other biological components to repair or replace damaged and dysfunctional tissues and organs. Important in the regenerative medicine process is the assembly of the regenerative cell systems into the proper tissue structure.

3D Cellular Systems

The same structure and function relationships in tissues are relevant to cell systems used in laboratory assays and experimental models. A more complex cell system, exhibiting appropriate organization and structure, captures better the native biology and therefore improves assay and model utility.


Directed deposition, or direct-writing, of different cell components is highly effective at assembling complex 3D cell and tissue structures for all applications. The BioAssemblyBot™, the latest in direct-write printers, is uniquely designed to pattern and assemble complex 3D biological systems via a rapid prototyping strategy.

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BioAssemblyBot and TSIM Software

3D Printing, Assembly & Cell Differentiation


Biological printing, or bioprinting, is the key technology that enables the fabrication of complex 3D biohybrid structures. It allows the construction of proteins and ECM that effectively guide cell growth in designed configurations. (Learn More)

Cell Systems: By The Numbers
30 trillion
Approximate number
of cells in an
adult human body.
300 billion
Estimated number of
new cells produced by
a human every day.
60 seconds
Time it takes for one
blood cell to travel a
full circuit of your body.




Cell System Facts
Did You Know?
Many cells make up one tissue, and many tissues make up an organ.
Cells range in size from
1 to 100 micrometers,

too small to be seen
without magnification.
Human cells have
varying life spans.

They can live anywhere
from a few days to a year.

Heart Wall